Doctors and beyond: getting to know your hospital staff

Hospitals are large and often complex health institutions staffed by professionals specialising in different areas of medical science. Beyond the familiar roles of general practitioners and nurses, there are a wide range of positions and jobs crucial to hospital operations and patient care that many people may not even be aware of. From radiographers to histopathologist consultants, familiarising yourself with these roles may enhance your appreciation of these professions and better inform you about the intricacies of medical care.

Knowing who is taking care of specific health needs is also vital, as it enables patients and visitors to navigate the healthcare system more effectively and appreciate the collaborative effort in providing them with quality hospital care.

Here are a few unique and specialised medical professionals who play vital roles as hospital staff:

Various types of surgeons

The roles of surgeons vary depending on their specialisation. For example, orthopaedic surgeons focus on the musculoskeletal system and address issues related to bones, joints, and muscles. In this same field, there are surgeons specialising in hand and reconstructive microsurgery who deal with procedures involving the hands and limbs.

There are also breast surgeons that help treat breast-related medical conditions, which can include cancer treatment. There are neurosurgeons that handle surgeries related to the brain and nervous system, as well as trauma surgeons who are adept at managing emergencies requiring prompt surgical intervention. Many hospitals also have reconstructive and cosmetic surgeons on board. Every type of surgeon has their own unique skill sets and knowledge, making them vital to specialised patient care in hospitals.


Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

Ob-Gyns or obstetricians and gynaecologists are specialists who focus on women’s health, particularly concerning reproductive health, pregnancy, and childbirth. While some people, even women themselves, conflate the two medical professions, they have different roles. Obstetricians oversee every aspect of pregnancy, from prenatal to postnatal care, to ensure that the mother and child are in good health. Meanwhile, gynaecologists treat a wide range of issues related to women’s health and reproductive system, such as menstruation disorders, menopause, and contraception. They also take part in the diagnosis and treatment of gynaecological cancers in addition to performing surgeries like hysterectomies.

ob gyn

Histopathologist consultant

This is a profession you may not be familiar with because it is a highly specialised role. Indeed, only a few hospitals, including a select few within the Singapore hospital network, have the specific facilities and patient demographics to necessitate the presence of a histopathologist consultant. Their role is critical in diagnosing diseases by examining tissue and cell samples under a microscope.

Specifically, histopathologist consultants ensure accurate disease diagnosis to provide crucial information for treatment planning, especially in cancer and other tissue-related diseases. Their detailed analyses guide clinical teams in determining the most effective treatment approaches for diverse medical conditions. In addition, histopathologists participate in research and contribute to advancements in medical science and understanding of diseases.

Paediatrician and Geriatrician

Paediatricians focus on medical care in children, from infants to adolescents, and address various health issues that include developmental disorders and childhood illnesses. Their expertise is not just in treating diseases, but also in monitoring and supporting the healthy growth and development of children.

On the other hand, geriatricians focus on elderly patients and deal with the complexities of ageing. They manage multiple chronic conditions and geriatric syndromes, as well as work towards improving the overall quality of life for older adults. Both these roles are crucial in providing age-specific healthcare and cater to the needs of these particular age groups.


Neonatologists are paediatricians who specialise in the care of newborns, specifically those who are ill or premature. Their expertise is critical in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), where they handle complex medical conditions affecting newborn babies. These experts are knowledgeable about treating a range of newborn illnesses and providing life-saving interventions. Furthermore, they collaborate with obstetricians and paediatricians to provide comprehensive care for the mother and child, addressing any issues that may develop during the perinatal stage.

Orthopaedic Doctors

Those who get injured while playing sports or are experiencing sudden joint pain are treated by an orthopaedic doctor. They focus on diagnosing, treating, and managing musculoskeletal conditions, including issues in the bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. Their role is pivotal in treating injuries such as fractures and dislocations, as well as chronic conditions like arthritis and osteoporosis. For additional support and resources, patients often turn to Ortho Bracing. These specialists use surgical and non-surgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumours, and congenital disorders.

Radiologists and Radiographers

Radiologists use a variety of medical imaging techniques, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI, nuclear medicine, and ultrasound to diagnose and treat diseases and injuries. They play a crucial role in interpreting these images and providing accurate diagnoses, which is essential for the appropriate treatment plan.

Do note that radiologists are not radiographers. The latter are healthcare professionals trained to perform the imaging procedures, ensuring that high-quality images are captured for analysis while taking care of patient safety and comfort during imaging.



Anaesthesiologists are highly skilled in administering anaesthesia safely during surgical procedures to guarantee that patients are pain-free and comfortable. Their role requires absolute precision and careful monitoring of the patient’s vital signs, as they must adjust anaesthesia levels appropriately throughout the surgery. Anaesthesiologists also help patients manage pain following surgery and occasionally treat chronic pain. Their knowledge is also essential in intensive care units, labour and delivery rooms, and operating rooms.


Nephrologists are experts in kidney health, diagnosing and treating kidney-related illnesses such as infections, chronic kidney disease, and kidney-affected hypertension. They also oversee dialysis treatments for patients with end-stage renal disease. Nephrologists cooperate with other medical specialists to offer all-encompassing care that considers the different health problems of patients resulting from kidney failure.


Gastroenterologists focus on the health of the digestive system or the gastrointestinal tract. They diagnose and treat conditions affecting the stomach, intestines, oesophagus, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. Their expertise includes managing diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and peptic ulcers. In some hospitals, gastroenterologists also perform diagnostic procedures like endoscopies and colonoscopies.

Infectious Disease Consultant

Infectious disease consultants are medical specialists who diagnose and treat complex infections caused by organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. You may be familiar with them during the pandemic, as they helped hospitals manage patients with COVID. They also handle other diseases like HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and emerging infectious diseases. These specialists are crucial in hospital infection control, as they advise on best practices to prevent the spreading of contagious diseases within healthcare settings. They also cooperate with other doctors to determine the best treatment plans for patients with persistent or unusual infections.

Recognising the Variety of Professions in Hospitals

The above-mentioned roles and specialised positions in hospitals and medical settings highlight the collaborative nature of healthcare and the contribution that each medical provider and professional makes towards the smooth operation of hospitals. Hopefully, the knowledge you gained from this article positively influences your interaction with the healthcare system. Awareness of these roles allows for more informed conversations with healthcare providers and a deeper understanding of the care process. It is a reminder that behind every treatment, diagnosis, and recovery, a dedicated team of professionals, each an expert in their field, is working together to ensure the best possible patient outcomes.

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